60-Second Civics

Sunday, July 14
   Daily civics quiz

Which of the following best describes "the pursuit of happiness" based on today's podcast?

 
 
 
 

Listen to today's podcast:


[Download]   rss feed  Twitter


Donate


  

 



About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

Subscribe: It's easy to subscribe! Listen on YouTubeiTunes or Stitcher or subscribe via RSS.

Get Involved: Join the conversation about each episode on Twitter. Or you can contact the show by emailing Mark Gage. Let me know what you think!

You Can Help: 60-Second Civics is supported by private donations. You can help keep the podcasts coming by donating, buying an ebook, or by writing a nice review in iTunes to help others discover the show. We love our listeners. You are the reason we created the podcast. Thank you for your kind support!

Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


Looking for a particular episode? Search by keyword here:



60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4943, Civil Rights at the Founding: Civil Rights, Part 1
What were civil rights at our country's founding? Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains the status of civil rights during America's founding period and how some Blacks responded to the Declaration of Independence and the outbreak of the Revolutionary War.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4942, Passing the Buck and Pointing the Finger: Balance of Powers, Part 13
Why has Congress adopted a passing the buck and pointing the finger strategy when it comes to enacting legislation for certain responsibilities? Find out in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4941, Reasons for the Shift of Power Away from Congress: Balance of Powers, Part 12 (rebroadcast)
The balance of power shifted from Congress to the presidency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and has remained there to this day. Learn what factors lead to this shift in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4940, The Shift of Power: Balance of Powers, Part 11 (rebroadcast)
From the establishment of our government under the Constitution until Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration in the 1930s, Congress dominated the national government. But then power started to shift toward the executive branch. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4939, Physical Evidence of the Founders' Intentions: Balance of Powers, Part 10
Even the placement and design of the three branches of government in the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., provides physical evidence of the Founders' intent that Congress dominate the national government. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4938, Congress and the Impeachment Power: Balance of Powers, Part 9
Evidence that the Framers intended to create a predominant Congress is apparent by how they bestowed the branch with the power to impeach the president and other high officials in the national government. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4937, The Framers Intended Congress to Dominate: Balance of Powers, Part 8 (rebroadcast)
The Framers of the Constitution intended Congress to be the dominant branch of the national government. Why was that? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4936, Limits on Each Branch of Government: Balance of Powers, Part 7
The Framers of the Constitution created a system of separated and shared powers and checks and balances to limit and control the use of power by governmental institutions and to prevent the possibility of tyranny. Learn more of each branch's ability to check the use of power by the other institutions in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4935, How the Supreme Court Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 6 (rebroadcast)
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to prevent a tyrannical executive in the presidency and a tyranny of a majority in Congress. But they were also careful to limit the power of the courts. Learn how in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4934, How the President Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution made each branch of the national government share some of its primary responsibilities and powers with one or more of the other branches. For example, the president and the executive branch have the primary responsibility for carrying out and enforcing laws. Learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4933, How Congress Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 4 (rebroadcast)
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to limit the power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government. So, they made each of them share some of its primary responsibilities and accompanying powers with one or more of the other branches. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4932, How to Prevent Tyranny: Balance of Powers, Part 3 (rebroadcast)
The Framers of the Constitution were concerned about two things: first, the emergence of a tyrannical executive in the presidency and second, a tyranny of a majority in Congress. Learn how they designed a system of government to address these concerns in this episode.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4931, Congress as the Predominant Branch: Balance of Powers, Part 2
Which branch of the federal government has the most power? We explore the intentions of the Framers for how power was to be distributed among the branches in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4930, A Constitutional World Turned Upside Down: Balance of Powers, Pt 1
Today we begin a special series of podcasts to examine the question of whether power in the federal government is appropriately balanced between Congress and the executive and judicial branches. We will also learn how power has shifted from Congress to the executive and judicial branches of government and consider the implications of this shift.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4929, Public and Private Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 10 (rebroadcast)
Many of our choices have social consequences and therefore have a civic dimension when they enhance or subtract from public happiness. Thus the pursuit of happiness must refer both to public and to private happiness.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4928, Self-control Is a Key to Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 9 (rebroadcast)
Every day we make numerous choices in deciding what course of action will add to our well-being and what will make us happy. Making these choices is the pursuit of happiness. Learn more about this important concept in this podcast!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4927, Origin of the Pursuit of Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 8
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson announced that every human being has andquot;certain unalienable rights,andquot; among which are those to andquot;life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.andquot; But what did Jefferson mean by andquot;the pursuit of happinessandquot;?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4926, Rights That Cannot Be Taken Away: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 7 (rebroadcast)
One key to understanding andquot;inalienableandquot; rights--as distinguished from ordinary, andquot;alienableandquot; rights--is found by turning to one of Thomas Jefferson's rough drafts of the Declaration of Independence. Listen to learn more about the foundations of your rights that cannot be taken away!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4925, Inalienable Rights: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 6 (rebroadcast)
The Declaration of Independence states that andquot;all Men are...endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.andquot; But what does andquot;unalienable Rights,andquot; or, as it was intended, andquot;inalienable Rightsandquot; mean? Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4924, Moral Equality: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 5 (rebroadcast)
The American Founders possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to today's episode for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4923, All Men Are Created Equal: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 4 (rebroadcast)
The Declaration of Independence states that among the andquot;truthsandquot; that Americans hold to be andquot;self-evidentandquot; is that andquot;all Men are created equal.andquot; But what was meant by this statement? Learn more today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4922, The American Mind: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 3 (rebroadcast)
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of the American mind. Learn more about this term and its significance today!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4921, Self-Evident Truths: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 2 (rebroadcast)
That andquot;all Men are created equalandquot; and andquot;endowed by their Creator with Certain unalienable Rightsandquot; was self-evident to Americans at the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Why was this? Learn more about the foundations of our self-evident truths.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4920, Independence Day: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 1 (rebroadcast)
Independence Day is a time to remember and appreciate our heritage of a democratic form of government and to reflect on our country's fundamental principles.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4919, The Declaration of Independence (rebroadcast)
The Declaration of Independence announced the final, momentous step in the colonists' resistance to the British government by rejecting the sovereignty, or authority, of the Crown. Learn more about the Declaration in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4918, Beyond the Legacy: Women's Rights, Part 6
In this extended episode of 60-Second Civics, Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains in more detail topics of women's rights from the previous five episodes. Dr. Tetrault covers the Seneca Falls Convention, the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments, the role of Frederick Douglass, and the Equal Rights Amendment, among other topics. This is the sixth episode in our 60-Second Civics series on women's rights as part of the Center for Civic Education's Civil Discourse: An American Legacy Project.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4917, The Equal Rights Amendment: Women's Rights, Part 5
What is the Equal Rights Amendment and how would its ratification change American life? In this episode, Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains the Equal Rights Amendment. This is the fifth episode in our 60-Second Civics series on women's rights as part of the Center for Civic Education's Civil Discourse: An American Legacy Project.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4916, The Abortion Debate and Fundamental Rights: Women's Rights, Part 4
How does abortion relate to fundamental rights as viewed by both sides of the abortion debate? Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains how fundamental rights relate to the modern abortion debate. This is the fourth episode in our 60-Second Civics series on women's rights as part of the Center for Civic Education's Civil Discourse: An American Legacy Project.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4915, Minor v. Happersett: Women's Rights, Part 3
What was the impact on women and on voting rights of the 1875 case of Minor v. Happersett? Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of American history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains the 1875 Supreme Court Case of Minor v. Happersett and its importance for the women's suffrage movement. This is the third episode in our 60-Second Civics series on women's rights as part of the Center for Civic Education's Civil Discourse: An American Legacy Project.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4914, The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments: Women's Rights, Part 2
What was the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and how does it relate to the Declaration of Independence? In this episode, Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains the historical significance of the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4913, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's Rights, Part 1
This is the first episode in our series on women's rights as part of our Civil Discourse and American Legacy Project. Dr. Lisa Tetrault, associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University, explains the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4912, Beyond the Legacy: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History, Part 6
Bonus extended content! For the first time ever, 60-Second Civics is offering our listeners a bonus, long-form interview with a guest. In this extra-in-depth episode of the podcast, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, describes historical challenges with the development of factions and the two-party system of the United States.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4911, Political Parties in the 1960s: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History, Part 5
How did today's split between conservatives and liberals begin to take shape in the twentieth century. In this video, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how today's modern political landscape began to take shape as a reaction to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal policies and the civil rights movement and other changes of the 1960s.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4910, Political Parties During the Civil War Era: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History Pt 4
Do you know how the modern Republican party formed? In this interview, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how the runup to the Civil War defined today's Republican and Democratic parties.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4909, Political Parties in Jacksonian Democracy: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History Pt 3
Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how a crisis helped spur the creation of a new political party during the Andrew Jackson administration.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4908, Origins of Political Parties: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History, Part 2
In this episode of 60-Second Civics, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, speaks about the origins of political parties in the United States, which began with the very first American presidential administration: that of George Washington.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4907, Functions of Political Parties: Political Parties and Conservatism in American History, Part 1
In today's episode, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains the basic functions of political parties in the American political system.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4905, Forms of Government: Principles of the Constitution, Part 4
In this video, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how the Framers of the Constitution thought about fundamental principles embodied in the Constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4904, Forms of Government: Principles of the Constitution, Part 4
In this video, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how the Framers of the Constitution thought about fundamental principles embodied in the Constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4903, Major Issues of the Philadelphia Convention, Representative Government: Principles of the Constitution, Part 3
In this episode, Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains a critical issue at the Philadelphia Convention: how the states would be represented in government.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4902, Major Issues of the Philadelphia Convention, Separation of Power: Principles of the Constitution, Part 2
Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, explains how separation of powers was a major issue at the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the new Constitution for the United States.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4901, The Need for a New Constitution: Principles of the Constitution, Part 1
Dr. Lester Brooks, emeritus professor of American history at Anne Arundel Community College, describes some of the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and explains why the Framers intended to amend it.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4900, The Future for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 7
There's a number of questions that surround the rights of transgender Americans and surround the rights of other parts of the LGBTQ spectrum that are going to continue to be very important when it comes to this particular social justice movement.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4899, Obergefell v. Hodges: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 6
There's a long history of federal cases, like Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas, that eventually lead up to Windsor v. U.S. as well as Obergefell v. Hodges, which are really the federal Supreme Court marriage equality cases that all really focus on two particular elements of the U.S. constitution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4898, Early Legislative Victories for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 4
Like the courts' role, the legislative branch has played a pivotal role in the LGBTQ rights movement. New York, one of the nation's largest states, was a site for an early legislative victory, and that legislation set a standard for legislative action around the country.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4897, Early Legislative Victories for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 4
Like the courts' role, the legislative branch has played a pivotal role in the LGBTQ rights movement. New York, one of the nation's largest states, was a site for an early legislative victory, and that legislation set a standard for legislative action around the country.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4896, Goodridge: The Cinderella Moment for Marriage Equality, LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 3
Why was the 2003 Massachusetts decision in Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health such an important moment, particularly when it comes to the role of courts in social justice movements? Find out more from Christopher R. Riano about this critical court case in the LGBTQ+ rights movement.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4895, Laying the Groundwork for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 2
We're joined again today by Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws, winner of the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. We ask him: What were some early LGBTQ+ rights questions that the community faced, particularly following what happened at Stonewall?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4894, What's Significant About the Stonewall Riots? LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 1
What were the Stonewall Riots and why are they seen as such an important milestone in the LGBTQ+ rights movement? Find out today as we launch a special weeklong series of LGBTQ+ Pride Week podcasts with our special guest, Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, along with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4893, The Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 5
These final pieces of the Bill of Rights deal with crime, punishment, and states rights. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4892, The Sixth and Seventh Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 4
Your right to an attorney, a fair trial, and more in these two amendments.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4891, The Fourth and Fifth Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 3
These Constitutional Amendments help protect the rights of those convicted of a crime

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4890, The First Three Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 2
These three Constitutional amendments protect some of our most fundamental rights as citizens.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4889, What is the Bill of Rights? Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 1
Today, December 15th, is Bill of Rights day! In recognition of this day, we start a new series exploring the first ten amendments of the Constitution and what they mean. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4888, The Bill of Rights, Part 1: What Is the Bill of Rights?
On today's podcast, we get a brief introduction to the Bill of Rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4887, Minority Consent: The Elements of Democracy, Part 16
We all know that in a democracy, the people are the rulers. But does this mean all the people? What about majority rule and the rights of minority groups? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4886, Who Are the People in a Democracy? The Elements of Democracy, Part 15
Democracy means andquot;rule by the people,andquot; but who are andquot;the peopleandquot;? Find out in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4885, Limited Powers of Democratic Governments: The Elements of Democracy, Part 14
It is an abuse of power for a democratic government to claim more powers than the people have delegated to it. Therefore, limited government is an important aspect of democracy. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4884, Alienation and Consent: The Elements of Democracy, Part 13
Many citizens in modern democracies fail to vote or participate in other ways that express their consent to be governed. This sign of alienation of individuals and groups from the political system represents a widespread problem in modern democracies. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4883, The People Delegate Authority: The Elements of Democracy, Part 12
In a democracy, the people delegate their authority to government, but only as much is necessary to fulfill the purposes for which states are established. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4882, Authority Flows from the People: The Elements of Democracy, Part 11
In a democracy, political authority flows from the people to the state—not from the state to the people. Why is this the case? Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4881, Popular Sovereignty: The Elements of Democracy, Part 10
Popular sovereignty is a basic idea of democracy and means that the people are the ultimate source of the authority of their government. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4880, Fundamental Rights: The Elements of Democracy, Part 9
Liberal democracy recognizes the importance of the individual and that all persons have certain fundamental rights. Learn what these rights look like in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4879, The Rule of Law: The Elements of Democracy, Part 8
The rule of law is a primary element of constitutionalism. An essential means of limiting government is establishing a rule of law, beginning with the constitution itself, which is a fundamental law. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4878, Permanent Campaigns: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 7
Permanent campaigns are increasingly noticeable in the larger perpetual U.S. campaign cycle, which is largely driven by meta-campaign demands and media sensationalism. Learn more in our final episode with Dr. Diana Owen adapted from the Strengthening Democracy in America Series available at learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4877, Constituent Service: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 6
Despite the warranted fears around big money, constituent service is an important way to help give a voice to more members of a particular congressional district. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4876, Donations and Political Equality: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 5
Political equality is a fundamental and critical concept for the U.S. government. Given this, how does big money affect political equality? Learn more as Dr. Diana Owen explains more in this series adapted from the Strengthening Democracy in America Series at learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4875, How Donors Affect Representatives' Policy Positions: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 4
How do donations affect members of Congress' policy positions? Listen as Dr. Diana Owen shares about the effect that this funding has on representatives legislative actions in this episode adapted from the Strengthening Democracy in America Series available at learn.civiced.org.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4874, Types of Political Contributions: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 3
Today, there are many types of political contributions that people or groups can make toward a political campaign, and it???s difficult to keep the types straight. Dr. Diana Owen explains in today???s episode the differences between popular types of contributions, including the hotly debated super PACs. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4873, Source of Campaign Funds: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 2
Continuing our new campaign finance series adapted from the Strengthening Democracy in America Series, available at learn.civiced.org, we ask Dr. Diana Owen: where does the money come from to run a political campaign? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4872, Cost of Political Campaigns: Campaign Finance in the U.S., Part 1
Today we begin a special series adapted from the Strengthening Democracy in America Series, a free online course on the American political system that you can find at Learn.civiced.org. In this series, Dr. Diana Owen, a professor of political science and director and principal investigator of the Civic Education Research Lab at Georgetown University, explains some of the more complicated aspects of our political process: campaign finance. To start, we cover the cost and reasons for these increasing costs.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4871, Human Equality and Government by Consent: The Road to Independence, Part 19
The Declaration of Independence made arguments based on human equality and government by consent, among other things. Listen to learn more about these important concepts!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4870, Ideas in the Declaration of Independence: The Road to Independence, Part 18
The Declaration of Independence contains ideas and arguments for independence that can be divided into several categories: natural rights, human equality, government by consent, the andquot;long train of abusesandquot; by King George III, and finally, the right to revolution. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4869, The Declaration of Independence: The Road to Independence, Part 17
The Declaration of Independence announced the final, momentous step in the colonists??? resistance to the British government by rejecting the sovereignty, or authority, of the Crown.??Learn more about this declaration in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4868, The Revolution Begins: The Road to Independence, Part 16
The battles of Lexington and Concord began the war between America and Britain. In August 1775 Britain declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion. Within a year, the Americans would officially declare their independence. Listen to learn more about this evolution!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4867, Concord Hymn: The Road to Independence, Part 15
The shot heard 'round the world is a line in the poem Concord Hymn describing the effect of the outbreak of the American Revolution in April 1775. Learn more in today's podcast!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4866, Lexington and Concord: The Road to Independence, Part 14
By 1774 many of the more radical colonists were beginning to prepare for war against Great Britain.?? These colonists formed civilian militias. On April 19, 1775, some 700 British troops tried to march to Concord, Massachusetts. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4865, First Continental Congress: The Road to Independence, Part 13
Colonists formed committees of correspondence to publicize colonial opposition and coordinate resistance. In 1774 colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss potential responses to the British government.??The meeting was called the First Continental Congress.??

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4863, John Adams and the Boston Massacre: The Road to Independence, Part 11
Controversial at the time, lawyer and later president John Adams defended the British soldiers and their captain following the Boston Massacre. Learn more about his motivation for doing this in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4862, The Boston Massacre: The Road to Independence, Part 10
On the night of March 5, 1770, a riot broke out and shots were fired in what would later be known as the ???Boston Massacre.??? Learn more about this important event in today???s episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4861, Daughters of Liberty: The Road to Independence, Part 9
After repealing the hated Stamp Act in 1766, the British Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, asserting Great Britain's full power and authority over the American colonies. In response a group of American women calling themselves the Daughters of Liberty led boycotts of English goods. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4860, The Townshend Acts: The Road to Independence, Part 8
The Townshend Acts are a now-infamous group of duties passed by Parliament in June 1767. They levied new taxes on items imported from Britain, which came with significant consequences. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4859, The Stamp Act Congress: The Road to Independence, Part 7
The Stamp Act Congress was held in October 1765 in New York to coordinate colonial resistance to the unpopular Stamp Act, which required nearly every important document printed in the colonies to be taxed. Hear more about this significant occurrence in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4858, The Sons of Liberty: The Road to Independence, Part 6
Opposition to the Stamp Act prompted American colonists to organize. The Sons of Liberty was one group created to resist the Stamp Act inspired by the words of Isaac Barre. Learn more about this group in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4857, The Stamp and Quartering Acts: The Road to Independence, Part 5
The British Parliament passed two highly unpopular laws in 1765: the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act. Listen to today's episode to learn more about these influential acts!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 5110, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 8
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is an important American founding document. The Connecticut Colony has its origins in 1636, when Thomas Hooker led a group of dissenting Puritans from Massachusetts to the Connecticut Valley. Learn why this document was so revolutionary in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4585, The Sugar Act: The Road to Independence, Part 3
The American colonists were already unhappy with the British about the Proclamation of 1763. But then they took another step that angered Americans. In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4584, The Proclamation of 1763: The Road to Independence, Part 2
Britain increased its control over the American colonies after 1763 following its victory over the French in the Seven Years' War, including with acts such as the Proclamation of 1763. Learn more about the implications of this in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4853, Salutary Neglect: The Road to Independence, Part 1
For more than 150 years before 1776, the American colonists had grown used to little direct interference by Parliament in colonial affairs. This policy was known as andquot;salutary neglect,andquot; but changes to this policy would initiate the focus of our series: The Road to Independence!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4852, Women's Political Power: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 9
In our final episode with Dr. Holly White of Colonial Williamsburg, we ask her what kind of political power did American women possess during the Early Republican period? Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4851, Women's Contributions to the American Revolution: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 8
Women played an integral role in the American Revolution. Listen in this episode as Dr. Holly White from Colonial Williamsburg explains what these roles looked like and how they influenced the Revolution.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4850, Sally New River: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 7
In our next episode with Dr. Holly White of Colonial Williamsburg, we ask her: who was Sally New River, and why should Americans know about her?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4849, Mehetabel Chandler Coit: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 6
In this episode, Dr. Holly White discusses Mehetabel Chandler Coit and how does her work help us understand women's daily lives during the early colonial period. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4848, Coverture: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 5
In today's episode, Dr. Holly White of Colonial Williamsburg discusses the practice of coverture and how it affected the lives of women in the American colonies. Listen to learn what this term means and more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4847, Life for Indigenous Women After European Arrival: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 4
After European colonization, the lives of Indigenous women would have varied greatly depending on their tribe, where they lived, and their interactions with European colonists. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4846, How Black Women Resisted Slavery: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 3
We are once again joined by Dr. Holly White, an expert on the history of gender, age, and family in early America. Today, she speaks about how, during the colonial era, Black women resisted slavery and oppression and the varying ways they approached it.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4845, Educational Opportunities for Women: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Part 2
Educational opportunities for girls and young women were limited in the North American colonies, and access was largely shaped by several social factors. Learn more about what these educational opportunities looked like from Dr. Holly White of Colonial Williamsburg.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4844, Life for Women in the North American Colonies: Women in the American Colonies and Early Republic, Pt 1
This week we introduce our series on women in the American colonies and the early republic. We are joined by special guest Dr. Holly White, an Associate Producer at Colonial Williamsburg Innovation Studios. She specializes in the history of gender, age, and family in early America.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4843, Women's Suffrage Expands Worldwide: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 14
By the time that the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in the United States in 1920, a number of other countries or states within them had secured women's suffrage. Learn more about suffrage worldwide in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4842, The Sentinels of Liberty: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 13
In 1917, women called the Sentinels of Liberty formed a twenty-four-hour vigil around Woodrow Wilson's White House. Learn more about why they did this in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4841, Violence Against Women's Suffrage: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 12
The political struggle for women's suffrage was not without its dangers and difficulties, as illustrated by events in 1913. Learn about the events at the women's suffrage parade in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4840, Women's Suffrage Associations: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 11
Many organizations were founded to address state- and nation-wide suffrage efforts, including the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 and National Woman's Party in 1917. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4839, A Fractured Suffrage Movement: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 10
The constitutional amendments that followed the Civil War fractured the women's movement. Indeed, debate over the Fifteenth Amendment reopened the suffrage and gender issue, splitting the women's movement. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4838, The Growing Women's Movement of the Late 1800s: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 9
Learn about the push for women's rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4837, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 8
After being banned from the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London because of their gender, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton translated their outrage into organizing the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Learn more about this convention in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4835, The Emerging Role of Women: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 6
The course of the nineteenth century saw the emerging role of women outside the home and the founding and growth of women's organizations devoted to addressing the most pressing public issues of the day. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4834, Women's Role in the American Economy Gradually Changes: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 5
By the end of the 19th century and first decades of the next, the economic roles of significant numbers of women had undergone marked transformation. Learn more about this change in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4833, Women Gain the Right to Vote: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 4
Learn about women's suffrage.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4832, World War I Increases Demands for Women's Suffrage: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 3
Learn about women's right to vote.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4831, Suffragists: Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 2
Learn about women's right to vote.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4830, Women's Suffrage Movement, Part 1
The Nineteenth Amendment, which was ratified August 1920, secured women's right to vote in all elections: local, state, and national.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4829, Redlining
Redlining is a discriminatory practice that withholds financial and other services, which prevents ethnic and racial minorities from, among other things, purchasing homes. Redlining's systemic practices have been traced back to the 1930s but still presents a problem today. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4828, Lynchings and Artistic Political Protest
Throughout history, artists have made it their civic duty to contribute to social change, including Billie Holiday with andquot;Strange Fruit,andquot; which brought attention to the unfair and unconstitutional lynchings of African American men and women. Listen to learn more from Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4827, Shelby County v. Holder
Although the Voting Rights Act of 1965 has been called “the most successful civil rights law in history,” one of its key provisions, Section 5, was challenged in the Supreme Court in 2013. Learn how the Shelby County v. Holder changed this civil rights legislation in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4825, Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction, but it did not protect voting rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4824, The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Struggle for Civil Rights, Part 5
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, using its constitutional power under Article I to regulate interstate commerce so that it could regulate private activities as well as state action. Learn more about how this legislation came about in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4823, The Civil Rights Movement Gains Support
In the spring of 1963 civil rights leaders organized public demonstrations throughout the South in which young people often were prominent. Learn more about how the civil rights movement gained momentum.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4822, Desegregation and Violence: The Struggle for Civil Rights, Part 3
Violence plagued the South in the years following desegregation.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4821, Brown v. Board of Education: The Struggle for Civil Rights, Part 2
The Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education held that segregation by law to be illegal in public schools. However, that decision implied that all segregation laws violated the guarantee of equal protection of the laws. Learn more about the implications of the decision in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4820, Segregation: The Struggle for Civil Rights, Part 1
The struggle for civil rights in the 1900s was born out of responses to discrimination in the United States. Discrimination based on race has its roots in racial separation, known as segregation. In this episode we discuss both de jure and de facto forms of segregation in the United States.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 5072, The Thirteenth Amendment
While Lincoln justified his Emancipation Proclamation as an act of military necessity, he understood that a constitutional amendment was required to abolish slavery immediately and everywhere in the United States. Learn more about how the Emancipation Proclamation led to the 13th Amendment in this episode of 60-Second Civics.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4819, The Importance of Civic Education: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 10
Today we ask Dr. Ross-Norris: Why is civic education important?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4818, How Young People Can Address Injustice: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 9
In this episode, we ask Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris: How can young people get involved in addressing injustices today? She explains the importance of making your voice heard and of support from older generations.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4817, Traveling to Ghana: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 8
While in college, Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris took a trip to Ghana that gave her and her classmates the opportunity to explore another culture and connect with their heritage. Listen to learn more about her experience!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4816, Racism and Policing in the 1940s: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 7
Dr. Ross-Norris recounts an encounter her family had with the police while driving through South Carolina at night. Her experiences bring to light issues with racism and policing during that time

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4815, Important Figures in the Civil Rights Movement: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 6
Throughout her life, Dr. Ross-Norris has interacted with several prominent civil rights leaders, including Dr. Dorothy Height and Rev. Fauntroy. Learn more how these figures inspired the next generation of civil rights leaders in today's episode.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4814, Maya Angelou and Her Role as a Citizen: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 5
Maya Angelou, an African American poet and civil rights activist, used her artistic abilities to communicate the Black experience and serve as an instrument for others to understand African American culture. Listen as Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris recounts her interactions with Maya Angelou in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4813, Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 4
Today we ask our guest Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris: Why are historically black colleges and universities important? In the episode, she shares her experience as a Howard University alumna and how attending an HBCU was significant to her as an African American.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4812, The Tuskegee Airmen: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 3
In today's episode, Dr. Ross-Norris talks about the Tuskegee Airmen, a group her father belonged to and who taught her important lessons about civics and being an American.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4811, Learning About the African American Experience: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 2
In February, we celebrate Black History Month. Today we ask Dr. Ross-Norris: Why should all Americans learn about the African American experience? Listen to learn why!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4810, Slavery and Our Nation's Founding: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 1
This week, we are joined by a very special guest, Vicki Ross-Norris, an actress, educator, and member of the Center for Civic Education's board of directors. In our first episode, we ask her: Given that many of the Framers of the Constitution were slaveholders, how should Americans think about our nation's founding?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4809, Constitutionalism: The Elements of Democracy, Part 7
Constitutionalism is the use of constitutions to limit government by law. Learn more about constitutions in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4808, Free and Fair Elections: The Elements of Democracy, Part 6
What three characteristics must elections in a democracy possess? Find out on today's podcast.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4807, Rule by the People: The Elements of Democracy, Part 5
Democracy can be defined as rule by the people through free and fair elections. Learn more about the central role of the governed in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4806, Democracy Defined: The Elements of Democracy, Part 4
Democracy originated more than 2,400 years ago in ancient Greece. The word democracy means rule by the people. Learn more about what this means in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4805, Political Authority: The Elements of Democracy, Part 3
Political authority is the right to make and enforce binding rules known as laws. While political power is the ability to persuade others to follow the policies of those who hold power, authority adds legitimacy to the exercise of this power. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4804, Authority: The Elements of Democracy, Part 2
What is authority? What is the difference between authority and power? Learn about this difference in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4803, Politics: The Elements of Democracy, Part 1
Today on the podcast we begin a series that explores the basic elements of democracy. We begin with a look at politics which is found wherever people live together. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4802, In Defense of Civil Disobedience: Civil Disobedience, Part 3
In light of criticisms raised in the previous episode, we explore why people support civil disobedience as method for justice.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4801, Criticism of Civil Disobedience: Civil Disobedience, Part 2
While civil disobedience was promoted by many, critics argue that civil disobedience is never justified because it is an attack on constitutional democracy. Learn more about these criticisms in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4800, Famous Figures Promoting Civil Disobedience: Civil Disobedience, Part 1
Participants in the struggles against slavery, the woman suffrage movement, and the civil rights movement all used civil disobedience to advocate change. This brief series on civil disobedience, we start by discussing the prominent figures in promoting civil disobedience throughout modern history.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4799, The Universe Is on the Side of Justice: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 6
In our final episode of this special series, we discuss Martin Luther King Jr.'s sixth principle of nonviolence that the universe is on the side of justice. King believed that every person who believes in nonviolent resistance believes somehow that the universe in some form is on the side of justice. Learn more about this final principle in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4798, Love, Not Hate: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 5
In our fifth episode, we discuss Martin Luther King Jr.'s next principle of nonviolence that nonviolence chooses love instead of hate. King emphasized that nonviolence meant not only renouncing physical violence, but also the avoidance of hatred what he called the internal violence of the spirit. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4797, Nonviolence Educates and Reforms: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 4
In this episode, we discuss Martin Luther King Jr.'s fourth principle of nonviolence—that nonviolence educates and reforms. King believed that the experience of acting nonviolently in the face of injustice transformed people. Learn more about this principle in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4796, Nonviolence Seeks to Defeat Injustice, Not People: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 3
Today we discuss Martin Luther King Jr.'s third principle of nonviolence: that nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4795, Nonviolence Seeks Reconciliation: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 2
Today we discuss Martin Luther King Jr.'s second principle of nonviolence: nonviolence seeks reconciliation.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4794, Nonviolence Requires Courage: Six Principles of Nonviolence, Part 1
On today's episode, we begin our discussion of Martin Luther King Jr.'s six principles of nonviolence.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4793, A Rough Start for the Bill of Rights: Rights, Part 13
The Bill of Rights was not initially received with enthusiasm. It caused bitter disagreements among both Federalists and Anti-Federalists. It had little effect on the lives of most Americans, whose day-to-day existence was impacted more by their state government rather than the national government.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4792, How the Constitution Protects Rights: Rights, Part 12
In addition to those rights protected in the first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, the body of the U.S. Constitution and subsequent amendments also protect many rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4791, Rights and the Third Amendment: Rights, Part 11
The Third Amendment was written in response to the Quartering Act of 1765, which was a British law authorizing colonial governors to requisition certain buildings, including parts of people's homes, for housing British troops.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4790, Rights and the Second Amendment: Rights, Part 10
Today we explain how the Second Amendment has been interpreted by the courts. The Second Amendment is a good example of both positive and negative rights in the Bill of Rights. Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, whereas negative rights restrict government action.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4789, Positive vs. Negative Rights: Rights, Part 9
Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, but negative rights restrict government action.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4788, Economic and Political Rights: Rights, Part 8
Economic rights are associated with ownership. Examples include choosing the work one wants to do, acquiring and disposing of property, entering into contracts. Political rights address political participation, such as voting and supporting particular candidates for office.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4787, Personal Rights: Rights, Part 7
The idea that humans are autonomous, self-governing individuals with fundamental rights is central to natural rights philosophy.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4786, What Are Rights?: Rights, Part 6
Rights may be held by individuals, classes or categories of individuals, or institutions. The emphasis on the rights of individuals is reflected in natural rights philosophy, exemplified in the Declaration of Independence.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4785, All States Have Bills of Rights: Rights, Part 5
Each state adopted a constitution after the Declaration of Independence was issued. Today, the constitutions of all fifty states, as well as the U.S. Constitution, contain bills or declarations of rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4784, Limits on Government in the Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 4
The Virginia Declaration of Rights described how representative government should be organized, limited the power of government, and informed the creation of our Bill of Rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4783, The Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 3
Virginia was the first state to include a bill of rights in its constitution. Learn more about the significance of this document for present rights in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4782, Why Have a Bill of Rights?: Rights, Part 2
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 was passed by Parliament, which means that Parliament can change it at any time. The American Bill of Rights, in contrast, is part of the U.S. Constitution, which is much more difficult to change, as are states' bills of rights.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4781, The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights: Rights, Part 1
The struggle between the rights of the people and the power of government to deny those rights is one of the great themes of human history. This episode of 60-Second Civics explores two documents that limited the power of government in English history: the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights. These documents significantly influenced American conceptions of the limitations on the power of government.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4780, The Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 5
These final pieces of the Bill of Rights deal with crime, punishment, and states rights. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4779, The Sixth and Seventh Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 4
Your right to an attorney, a fair trial, and more in these two amendments.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4778, The Fourth and Fifth Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 3
These Constitutional Amendments help protect the rights of those convicted of a crime

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4777, The First Three Amendments: Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 2
These three Constitutional amendments protect some of our most fundamental rights as citizens.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4776, What is the Bill of Rights? Introduction to the Bill of Rights, Part 1
Today, December 15th, is Bill of Rights day! In recognition of this day, we start a new series exploring the first ten amendments of the Constitution and what they mean. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4775, Compromise on a Bill of Rights: Concerns for the Constitution, Part 8
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed over whether a bill of rights is needed for the Constitution and debated the idea heavily. Learn more about what they considered in creating the Bill of Rights in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4774, Would the National Government Have Too Much Power? Concerns for the Constitution, Part 7
During the debates over ratification of the Constitution, Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed over whether the national government would have too much power. Listen to learn more about these debates in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4773, Would the Constitution Maintain Republican Government? Concerns for the Constitution, Part 6
One area of contention between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists was over the question of whether the Constitution would maintain republican government. Learn more about what they debated over in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4772, Three Basic Disagreements over Ratification: Concerns over the Constitution, Part 5
Both the Federalists and Anti-Federalists made many arguments for and against the Constitution. However, the most intense arguments were about three basic issues. Listen to learn about these issues!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4771, Meet the Anti-Federalists: Concerns for the Constitution, Part 4
Meet the Anti-Federalists: The people who opposed ratifying the Constitution. Anti-Federalist leaders included George Mason, Edmund Randolph, and Elbridge Gerry. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4770, Meet the Federalists: Concerns for the Constitution, Part 3
Meet the Federalists: The people who supported ratifying the Constitution. Learn more about their positions and decisions regarding the Constitution in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4769, Ratifying the Constitution: Concerns for the Constitution, Part 2
James Madison developed a plan to have the Constitution approved by voters at special conventions to be held in each state. Madison thought that the Constitution would be rejected if Congress or the state legislatures were asked to ratify it. Learn more about ratification in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4768, James Madison's Plan for Ratification: Concerns for the Constitution, Part 1
James Madison was afraid that the Constitution would be rejected if either the Congress or the state legislatures were asked to ratify it. To avoid rejection, Madison developed a plan. Listen to learn more about this plan!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4767, Issues Facing Native American Communities Today: Native American Heritage Month, Part 15
In the final episode of our Native American Heritage Month Series, Terry Mason Moore, enrolled member of the Osage tribe, discusses current and future issues facing Native American communities and all Americans today. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4766, Tribal Sovereignty and Native American Citizenship: Native American Heritage Month, Part 14
Native Americans are citizens of three governments: Their tribe, their state, and the United States. Learn more about the history and dynamics of Native American citizenship from the Center for Civic Education's board member, Terry Mason Moore.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4765, How Native American Cultures Enrich the United States: Native American Heritage Month, Part 13
According to Terry Mason Moore, enrolled member of the Osage Nation, Native cultures are vibrant and living cultures with a long history of interaction and engagement with the non-native people of the United States. Learn more about how these cultures enrich all peoples in our nation!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4764, Being an Enrolled Member of the Osage Nation: Native American Heritage Month, Part 12
In this episode, Terry Mason Moore discusses her life growing up as an enrolled member of the Osage Nation in Oklahoma. Listen to learn more about her family, experiences, and culture have shaped her life!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4763, What is Native American Heritage Month? Native American Heritage Month, Part 11
In continuing our Native American Heritage Month series, we are joined by a very special guest, Terry Mason Moore, an enrolled member of the Osage Nation, an attorney, and a member of the Center of Civic Education Board of Directors. In this episode, she discusses what National Native American Heritage Month entails and its importance.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4762, Native American Activism: Native American Heritage Month, Part 10
In 1968 several hundred members of Native American tribes met to discuss issues affecting their communities. The American Indian Movement, or AIM, emerged out of this meeting, which has set the stage for more modern activism among Native Americans today. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4761, Tribal Recognition: Native American Heritage Month, Part 9
Several hundred Native American tribes in the United States are currently seeking official tribal recognition from the federal government, a process that often takes decades to complete. Federal recognition is important for tribes because it formally establishes a government-to-government relationship. Learn more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4760, Vacillating Policy Toward Native American Tribes: Native American Heritage Month, Part 8
The national government policy vacillated between respecting the sovereignty of Native American tribes and seeking to dismantle tribal governments and to integrate their members into the United States. Listen for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4759, Removing Obstacles to Native American Voting: Native American Heritage Month, Part 7
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extended the right to vote to all Native Americans, but many encountered obstacles to voting, serving on juries, and giving testimony in courts. Learn more about how these obstacles were removed in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4758, Indian Citizenship Act of 1924: Native American Heritage Month, Part 6
While Native Americans were original not granted citizenship in the U.S., the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 extended the right to vote to all Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States. Learn more about how this change came about in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4757, Denial of Native American Citizenship and Voting Rights: Native American Heritage Month, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, which they considered foreign nations. Thus, they denied them citizenship and the right to vote. Learn more about how this set a foundation for future relations in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4756, Native American Activist Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Native American Heritage Month, Part 4
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote. Learn more about her life and work in our latest Native American Heritage Month episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4755, The Power of Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Native American Heritage Month, Part 3
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4754, Native Americans During the Colonial Era: Native American Heritage Month, Part 2
While Native Americans had lived on the North American continent for at least 24,000 years, the arrival of colonists brought great conflict and change. Learn more about Native Americans in the colonial era in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4753, Native American Tribes in Early America: Native American Heritage Month, Part 1
In honor of Native American Heritage Month, we are rebroadcasting some 60-Second Civics episodes highlighting Native American history, culture, and experience, starting with Native American tribes in the early U.S. Hundreds of different groups of Native Americans had inhabited the continent for thousands of years, including the Eastern Woodland tribes. Learn more about the some of these tribes in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4752, Equality and the American Mind: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 20
Where did the idea of universal human equality, a common American idea, come from? Religious movements in colonial America helped spread the idea of universal moral human equality, including equality among social classes. Listen to today's podcast for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4751, Stoicism, Christianity, and Moral Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 19
Yesterday, we discussed the origins of American political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to this episode for more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4750, Americans' Sense of Political Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 18
The Declaration of Independence states that all men, meaning all people, are created equal. But where did this idea come from? Ideas of natural political equality were developed in seventeenth-century England and exported to its colonies across the North Atlantic. Learn more in today's episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4749, All Men Are Created Equal: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 17
The Declaration of Independence states that among the truths that Americans hold to be self-evident is that all Men are created equal. But what did Thomas Jefferson mean by this statement?

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4748, The American Creed: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 16
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of the American mind. Over the course of a few days in June 1776, Jefferson laid out the most fundamental principles and central political beliefs of the American Revolution and of the people the Revolution created.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4747, Why Americans Held These Truths to Be Self-evident: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 15
Why did the writers of the Declaration of Independence hold these Truths to be self-evident? Among other things, these Americans were deeply influenced by the teachings of Christianity and English republicanism.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4746, The Meaning of Self-Evident Truths: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 14
The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence begins like this: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. But what does we hold these truths to be self-evident mean? We explain more in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4745, American Fundamentals: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 13
Americans share certain fundamental ideals, values, and principles. Today we examine these foundational beliefs for constitutional government in colonial America.

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4744, Elections in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 12
Elections in the colonial era and in the early American republic were rather uncivilized compared to today's standards. Explore the differences between then and now in this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4743, Qualifying to Vote in Early America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 11
In the American colonies, the right to vote followed the British model: only free adult males who owned a certain amount of property could vote, though there were limited exceptions to this rule. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4742, Voting Rights in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 10
Voting rights in colonial America depended on the ownership of property. In other words, a person had to own a certain amount of land, livestock, or other property in order to qualify to vote. Listen to learn more!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4741, Representative Democracy in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 9
Each of the thirteen American colonies had some features of representative democracy that we still see today. For example, each of the colonies had a legislative, executive, and judicial branch. Learn more with this episode!

60-second civics logo

60-Second Civics: Episode 4740, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 8
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is an important American founding document. The Connecticut Colony has its origins in 1636, when Thomas Hooker led a group of dissenting Puritans from Massachusetts to the Connecticut Valley. Learn why this document was so revolutionary in today's episode!

About

CCE LogoThis site is brought to you by the Center for Civic Education. The Center's mission is to promote an enlightened and responsible citizenry committed to democratic principles and actively engaged in the practice of democracy. The Center has reached more than 30 million students and their teachers since 1965. Learn more.

Center for Civic Education

5115 Douglas Fir Road, Suite J
Calabasas, CA 91302

  Phone: (818) 591-9321

  Email: web@civiced.org

  Media Inquiries: cce@civiced.org

  Website: www.civiced.org

© Center for Civic Education