60-Second Civics

Tuesday, October 19
   Daily civics quiz
During the Middle Ages, which entity was the unifying social institution for much of Europe?

 
 
 
 

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About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

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Get Involved: Join the conversation about each episode on Twitter. Or you can contact the show by emailing Mark Gage. Let me know what you think!

You Can Help: 60-Second Civics is supported by private donations. You can help keep the podcasts coming by donating, buying an ebook, or by writing a nice review in iTunes to help others discover the show. We love our listeners. You are the reason we created the podcast. Thank you for your kind support!

Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


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60-Second Civics: Episode 4442, The Role of Citizens in Classical Republics: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 17
Classical republicans, who heavily influenced the American Founders, believed that citizens played a central role in government’s functions. Learn more about the civic duties of citizens in these republics and how they differ from today in our latest episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4441, Small, Uniform Communities in Classical Republicanism: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 16
Classical republicanism placed great emphasis on the importance of small, uniform communities as being essential for the success of good government. But why was this? Find out in today’s episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4438, World: How Can You Support the Flourishing of the Wider World? Gary Sheng, Part 5
How can you engage in ways that make a positive impact on people in your even wider world, your state, region, country or even beyond?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4437, Community: How Can You Support the Flourishing of Your Local Community? Gary Sheng, Part 4
How can you engage in ways that make a positive impact on people in your wider world a.k.a. your local community?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4436, Social Circle: How Can You Support the Flourishing of People You Know? Gary Sheng, Part 3
Working on yourself is a lifelong journey, along the way you will also want to make a habit of seizing the opportunities to support the wellbeing of the people in your life.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4435, Self: How Do You Change Yourself to Change The World? Gary Sheng, Part 2
How do you make a difference in the world? While social media glorifies certain types of civic engagement that can seem overwhelming, Gary Sheng of Civics Unplugged is here to show you that anyone can engage civically where your actions make a big difference. Listen to this series for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4434, Introduction: How Do You Make a Difference in the World? Gary Sheng, Part 1
How do you make a difference in the world? While social media glorifies certain types of civic engagement that can seem overwhelming, Gary Sheng of Civics Unplugged is here to show you that anyone can engage civically where your actions make a big difference to the people around you.??Listen to this series for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4433, Terrorism, Social Media, and the First Amendment: Free Speech and Civil Liberties after 9/11: David Hudson, Part 5
What can and should the government do to control organizing on social media? And, does the government have any powers under the Patriot Act?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4432, The Issue of Profiling: Free Speech and Civil Liberties after 9/11: David Hudson, Part 4
While it's not directly a first amendment issue, our guest, David Hudson, highlights one of the unfortunate aftermaths of 9/11: the rise of profiling. Listen to today's episode for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4431, The New Role of Government Surveillance: Free Speech and Civil Liberties after 9/11: David Hudson, Part 3
Following 9/11, how did mass governmental surveillance impact American civil liberties? Find out in today's episode with David Hudson!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4430, Section 805 of the Patriot Act: Free Speech and Civil Liberties after 9/11: David Hudson, Part 2
We continue our series Free Speech & Civil Liberties after 9/11 with David Hudson in today’s episode. Building off of yesterday’s discussion of section 215, Hudson discusses section 805 and how this section became contested at the U.S. Supreme Court. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4429, Section 215 of the Patriot Act: Free Speech and Civil Liberties after 9/11: David Hudson, Part 1
Today, we start our five-part series Free Speech & Civil Liberties after 9/11 with David Hudson, a first amendment scholar from Belmont University. In today’s episode, Hudson discusses the controversial section 215 of the Patriot Act. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4428, The Roman Republic as an Example and a Warning: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 14
The Roman Republic began in the sixth century BC and lasted until the first century BC and the establishment of the Roman Empire. The Roman Republic was both an example and a warning for the American Founders.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4427, Classical Republicanism: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 14
The American Founders had read a great deal about the ideals and practices of ancient Greek and Roman city-states and the thinkers of classical antiquity. They were familiar with classical republicanism, which emphasized civic participation and the responsibility of citizens for the well-being of country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4426, The Roman Republic: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 13
The Roman Republic was the ancient society that exercised the greatest influence on the American Founders. Historians during the founding era thought that the Roman Republic had done the best job of promoting the common good; that is, doing what was best for the society as a whole.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4425, The Problem with Constitutional Government: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 12
As the Founders of the new American republic knew, constitutional government can take many forms. A constitutional government can have a single ruler, a group of rulers, or rule by the people as a whole. However, this system does have flaws. Learn more in today's podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4424, Popular Sovereignty and Higher Law: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 11
In democracies, the sovereign people are the ultimate authority that grants all powers exercised by government. This is called popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty requires that the whole body of citizens consent to be governed by the constitution that they authorize and under which they live. Constitutions are forms of higher law.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4423, Constitutional Government Is Limited Government: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 10
A constitution limits the powers of government by defining and distributing its powers. However, just because a nation has a constitution does not mean that it has a constitutional government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4422, What Is a Constitution? Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 9
A constitution is an authoritative law through which the sovereign people of a democracy authorize a government to be established and grant it certain powers. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4421, The Reason for a Representative Government: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 8
While the founders were supportive of democracy as a concept, they had their reservations about certain types. Learn more in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4420, James Madison and the Republic: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 7
What did James Madison think about the term "Republic" and why is this significant for the foundation of the United States? Find out more in today'ss episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4419, The Mixed Constitution: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 6
From where did the American Founders learn about the idea of a ??mixed constitution??? Listen to today??s episode to learn about its Greek and Roman origins and more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4418, Why Aristotle Wasn't a Fan of Direct Democracy: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 5
Aristotle identified democracy as a corrupt form of government by the many poor. By "democracy," Aristotle meant direct democracy, where people make public policy directly. This is different from the type of government we call democracy today, in which, for the most part, we elect representatives to make public policy for us. Listen to today's episode to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4417, Aristotle'ss Right and Corrupt Forms of Government: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 4
Aristotle distinguished between what he called the "right form" and the "corrupt form" of government. Listen to today's episode to understand the difference!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4416, Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Functions: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 3
Aristotle observed that every state, or country, must perform three functions: legislative, executive, and judicial. The American Founders were well acquainted with these functions, and formed the three branch system around them. Listen to today??s episode to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4415, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 2
The American Founders learned a great deal from natural rights philosophers, such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Natural rights philosophy taught that people have natural rights that others must respect. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4414, History Lessons and the Constitution: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 1
The American Founders learned lessons from ancient history when creating their state constitutions and the U.S. Constitution. They learned from Greek and Roman history that although democracies may appear to begin well, they tend to end in tyranny when the poor attack the rich.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4413, Lessons from Classical Philosophy: Back-to-School Basics, Part 12
The American Founders studied ancient Greek and Roman philosophers to learn about how to create the best form of government. Classical political philosophers taught that human beings are, by nature, social creatures.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4412, Self-government in Virginia: Back-to-School Basics, Part 11
In the more than 150 years of European settlement of the British North American colonies, by 1776 Americans had developed many different ways of organizing local governments. Today's episode will cover self-government in the colonies, especially the House of Burgesses in Virginia. Listen now!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4411, William Blackstone's Influence on the American Founders: Back-to-Basics Part 10
William Blackstone's explanations of English law, published between 1765 and 1769, were incredibly influential on the formation of basic rights in America. Listen to today's episode to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4410, Who Influenced the American Founders? Back-to-School Basics, Part 9
America's Founders learned about government from their experiences in self-government as subjects of the British Empire. They also learned about government by reading history and philosophy, particularly that of ancient Greece and Rome and the works of sixteenth and seventeenth-century philosophers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4409, Trades and Land Speculation in the American Colonies: Back-to-School Basics, Part 8
While most Americans during the colonial period were farmers, others followed various trades, working as brickmakers, carpenters, printers, sailors, shoemakers, and even wigmakers, among other professions. Listen to today??s podcast to learn more about these colonial careers!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4408, Agriculture in Colonial America: Back-to-School Basics, Part 7
Most Americans during the colonial period lived in small villages or on farms. The size of farms varied widely, from small plots of land in New England to immense plantations in the South with thousands of acres.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4407, The Diversity of the American Colonies: Back-to-School Basics, Part 6
The American colonists came from a variety of countries and for various economic, religious, and social reasons. Learn more about the diverse group that came to settle in the colonies with today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4406, Native Americans and Colonial America: Back-to-School Basics, Part 5
The American colonists were not the first people on the North American continent. Native Americans had lived on the continent for at least 24,000 years. Listen to today's episode to learn a little more about Native Americans during colonial times!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4405, Opportunities in the Early American Colonies: Back-to-School Basics, Part 4
Many new arrivals viewed colonial America in the 1770s as a land of opportunity. Learn why in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4404, Portraits of Some American Founders: Back-to-School Basics, Part 3
Who were the American Founders?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4403, The American Founders: Back to School Basics, Part 2
The American Founders drew on a number of basic ideas and experiences to create the kind of government they believed would best protect the natural rights of Americans and promote the common good. Get introduced to some of the Founders in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4402, An Adventure in Ideas with We the People: Back to School Basics, Part 1
The history of the American people has been a great adventure in ideas and in trying to make these ideas a reality. Over the next few weeks, 60-Second Civics will explore the important philosophical ideas and historical events that influenced the writing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4401, Supreme Court Decisions about the General Welfare Clause: American Fundamentals, Part 24
People disagree over what powers the general welfare clause gives Congress to spend taxes. Under our Constitution, the Supreme Court of the United States is given the power to interpret the meaning of the Constitution. Learn more about how the Court has interpreted these powers in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4400, The Debate Over the General Welfare Clause: American Fundamentals, Part 23
Even before the Constitution was ratified in 1788, people disagreed over what powers the Constitution gives to Congress to promote "the general Welfare." The topic is still debated today.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4399, The Meaning of "General Welfare" in the Constitution: American Fundamentals, Part 22
The Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that one of its purposes is to promote the general Welfare. Article I, Section. 8. 1. of the Constitution says "The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4398, Shays' Rebellion and the U.S. Constitution: American Fundamentals, Part 21
As the Annapolis Convention met in September 1786, to ???Remedy Defects of the Federal Government,??? Shays' Rebellion had just begun. This extensive, sometimes bloody conflict began in Massachusetts began in August 1786 and stretched into 1787.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4397, Farmers' Demands, Debt, and Social Disorder: American Fundamentals, Part 20
By the mid-1780s, acts of violence protesting the poor economic conditions for American farmers had become commonplace. Farmers had borrowed money to raise crops to support the high demand during the Revolutionary War.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4396, Social Disorder After the Revolutionary War: American Fundamentals, Part 19
Social disorder after the Revolutionary War was caused mainly by economic conflict between farmers and merchants.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4395, How Does the Constitution Provide for Domestic Tranquility? American Fundamentals, Part 18
The Preamble to the Constitution states that one of its purposes is to "insure domestic Tranquility." What does this term mean, and why was it included in the Preamble?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4394, The Corrective Form of Justice: American Fundamentals, Part 17
When a person has been convicted of a criminal or civil violation, how do we deal with the perpetrator?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4393, The Procedural Form of Justice: American Fundamentals, Part 16
Procedural justice is the fairness of how information is gathered and how decisions are made. This concept is central to the American constitutional system.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4392, The Distributive Form of Justice: American Fundamentals, Part 15
The concept of justice has long been divided into three types: distributive justice, procedural justice, and corrective justice. In today's episode, we'll cover the first type: distributive justice.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4391, The Civic Dimension of the Pursuit of Happiness: American Fundamentals, Part 14
Many of our choices have social consequences and therefore have a civic dimension when they enhance or subtract from "public happiness."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4390, "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness:" American Fundamentals, Part 13
Every day we make numerous choices in deciding what course of action will add to our well-being??what will make us happy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4389, What Did Our Founders Mean By the "Pursuit of Happiness?" American Fundamentals, Part 12
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson announced that every human being has "certain unalienable rights," among which are those to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." But what did he mean by "the pursuit of happiness"? Find out in today's podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4388, An Explanation of Inalienable Rights: American Fundamentals, Part 11
The Virginia Declaration of Rights was written shortly before the Declaration of Independence. The rights Jefferson calls both inherent and inalienable are those that we are unable to get rid of, for the simple reason that they are part of us, helping to define what we are.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4387, An Introduction to Inalienable Rights in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
One key to understanding "inalienable" rights, as distinguished from ordinary, "alienable" rights, is to examine the Virginia Declaration of Rights. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4386, What Does "Unalienable Rights" Mean? American Fundamentals, Part 9
The Declaration of Independence states that "all Men are ... endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights." But what does "unalienable Rights" mean?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4385, Universal Human Equality--A Common American Idea: American Fundamentals, Part 8
Where did the idea of universal human equality, a common American idea, come from? Religious movements in colonial America helped spread the idea of universal moral human equality, including equality among social classes. Listen to today's podcast for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4384, What are the Origins of Americans' Sense of Moral Equality? American Fundamentals, Part 7
On Friday, we discussed the origins of Americans' sense of political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to today's episode for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4383, What are the Origins of Americans' Sense of Political Equality? American Fundamentals, Part 6
The Declaration of Independence states that all men, meaning all people, are created equal. But where did this idea come from? Ideas of natural political equality were developed in seventeenth-century England and exported to its colonies across the North Atlantic. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4382, "All Men Are Created Equal": American Fundamentals, Part 5
The Declaration of Independence states that among the "truths" that Americans hold to be "self-evident" is that "all Men are created equal." But what did Thomas Jefferson mean by this statement?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4381, The American Creed: American Fundamentals, Part 4
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of "the American mind." Over the course of a few days in June 1776, Jefferson laid out the most fundamental principles and central political beliefs of the American Revolution and of the people the Revolution created.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4380, Why Americans Held "These Truths to Be Self-evident": American Fundamentals, Part 3
Why did the writers of the Declaration of Independence "hold these Truths to be self-evident?" Among other things, these Americans were deeply influenced by the teachings of Christianity and English republicanism. Learn more in today's episode of 60-Second Civics!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4379, What Does "We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident" Mean? American Fundamentals, Part 2
The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence begins like this: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." But what does "We hold these truths to be self-evident" mean? We explain more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4378, Our Founding Ideals, Values, and Principles: American Fundamentals, Part 1
To be an American means, among other things, to share certain fundamental ideals, values, and principles with other Americans. It's worth taking the time to examine and reaffirm our commitment to the values and principles on which our nation is founded. Today, we look back to July 4, 1776, when a group of leading American colonists gathered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4377, "Our Country's Aim Will Remain True Towards Justice": Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 6
In light of the recent rise in violence toward Asian Americans, Justice Nakayama of the Hawai'i Supreme Court emphasizes that, "we must encourage everybody to learn, understand and deeply appreciate and embrace the rule of law in our country."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4376, What Does a Civic and Constitutional Education Mean to You?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 5
In today's podcast, we ask Justice Nakayama: What does a civic and constitutional education mean to you? And, why have you dedicated so many years to ensuring greater access to civics for more Americans?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4375, Learning About Your Role As an American: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 4
A well-informed citizenry is the cornerstone of our democracy, which is why Justice Nakayama believes it's essential for all Americans to learn about their roles and responsibilities as citizens.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4374, Why Should Young People Consider Public Service?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 3
"When you are a public servant, it is important to realize that you are indeed serving the public. I think about that all the time, and I consider it a higher calling." In our episode, Justice Nakayama shares her perspective on the value of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4373, One of the First Women on the Hawai'i Supreme Court: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 2
Today, we ask Justice Nakayama: What is it like to be one of the first women to serve on the Hawai'i Supreme Court and one of the few Asian American women serving as a state supreme court justice? While Justice Nakayama shares times in which she faced discrimination, she nonetheless believes that "being on the Supreme Court is an honor and a privilege."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4372, How Did You Become a Justice on the Hawai'i Supreme Court?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 1
Today, we start a new series with Associate Justice of the Hawai'i Supreme Court, Paula Nakayama. In our first episode, Justice Nakayama shares how a lot of hard work and a little luck helped her achieve one of the highest positions in the legal profession.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4371, The Future for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 7
There's a number of questions that surround the rights of transgender Americans and surround the rights of other parts of the LGBTQ spectrum that are going to continue to be very important when it comes to this particular social justice movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4370, Obergefell v. Hodges: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 6
There's a long history of federal cases, like Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas, that eventually lead up to Windsor v. U.S. as well as Obergefell v. Hodges, which are really the federal Supreme Court marriage equality cases that all really focus on two particular elements of the U.S. constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4369, The Defense of Marriage Act: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 5
Just like we see earlier in the courts, and we see in the legislatures, the executive branch plays a crucial role in the LGBTQ rights movement, particularly when it comes to marriage equality.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4368, Early Legislative Victories for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 4
Like the courts' role, the legislative branch has played a pivotal role in the LGBTQ rights movement. New York, one of the nation's largest states, was a site for an early legislative victory, and that legislation set a standard for legislative action around the country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4367, Goodridge: The Cinderella Moment for Marriage Equality, LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 3
Why was the 2003 Massachusetts decision in Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health such an important moment, particularly when it comes to the role of courts in social justice movements? Find out more from Christopher R. Riano about this critical court case in the LGBTQ+ rights movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4366, Laying the Groundwork for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 2
We're joined again today by Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws, winner of the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. We ask him: What were some early LGBTQ+ rights questions that the community faced, particularly following what happened at Stonewall?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4365, What's Significant About the Stonewall Riots? LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 1
What were the Stonewall Riots and why are they seen as such an important milestone in the LGBTQ+ rights movement? Find out today as we launch a special weeklong series of LGBTQ+ Pride Week podcasts with our special guest, Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, along with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4364, When Isn't a Warrant Warranted? The Right to Privacy, Part 12
During the 1960s the Supreme Court held that searches conducted without warrants are inherently unreasonable. By the 1970s the Court had recognized a number of exceptions to the warrant requirement. We cover a few examples of those exceptions in today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4363, Probable Cause: How Do Warrants Work? The Right to Privacy, Part 11
The Fourth Amendment protects people and their personal effects against unreasonable searches and seizures. It also requires applications for warrants to be supported by probable cause and requires a judge to decide whether probable cause exists. How do officials obtain warrants? We'll explain in today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4362, Unreasonable Searches and Seizures: The Right to Privacy, Part 10
The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, but it seeks to strike a balance between the need for order and each individual's rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4361, Fourth Amendment and Technology: The Right to Privacy, Part 9
There have been vast technological changes since the ratification of the Fourth Amendment in 1791, and the courts have been asked to interpret the significance of ever-changing technology and surveillance techniques.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4360, Reasonable Expectations of Privacy: The Right to Privacy, Part 8
Protecting privacy against intrusion by government officials is a deeply held value in the United States. Courts have interpreted the Fourth Amendment as protecting reasonable expectations of privacy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4359, The Fourth Amendment: The Right to Privacy, Part 7
The Fourth Amendment grew directly out of the American colonial experience. It protects against unreasonable searches and seizures by government officials.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4358, Protection Against Unreasonable Search and Seizure: The Right to Privacy, Part 6
The protection against unreasonable search and seizure was in part a reaction against the general warrants issued by the British that so enraged American colonists in the prelude to the Revolution. The Fourth Amendment and state constitutions protect against unreasonable searches and seizures.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4357, John Adams and James Otis: The Right to Privacy, Part 5
John Adams claimed that James Otis's speech against general warrants was the first act of colonial resistance to British policies. Despite his fame, Otis's career would be ended by a violent attack by a British customs official.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4356, James Otis Speaks Against General Warrants: The Right to Privacy, Part 4
General warrants were unpopular in the American colonies, where they were used to search for evidence of smuggling. In a five-hour speech in February 1761, James Otis spoke out against them, saying that they would "totally annihilate" the British common-law tradition that "A man's house is his castle."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4355, General Warrants and the American Revolution: The Right to Privacy, Part 3
American colonists' strong objections to British trade laws and the use of general warrants contributed to the American Revolution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4354, The Problem with General Warrants: The Right to Privacy, Part 2
General warrants allowed British officials to search people, businesses, homes, and property indiscriminately. British officials in the American colonies used such warrants to collect taxes, to recover stolen goods --including enslaved people -- and to prosecute smugglers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4353, Historical Origins of the Right to Privacy: The Right to Privacy, Part 1
Americans inherited from British history the principle that "a man's home is his castle." This idea can be traced to the opinion of Sir Edward Coke in Semayne's Case in 1604.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4352, Freedom of Association and American Citizenship: Freedom of Expression, Part 30
More than one hundred fifty years ago, French political thinker Alexis de Tocqueville commented on Americans' habitual practice of joining together to solve common problems. The exercise of freedom of association was, Tocqueville believed, one of the outstanding characteristics of American citizenship.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4351, Discrimination and Government Interference: Freedom of Expression, Part 29
Over the years, the courts and legislators have grappled with the question of whether the right to associate means that one has the right not to associate with certain people. The difficulties reflect the tension between two important ideals: (1) eliminating unfair discrimination in American life and (2) the right of each individual to live his or her own life as free as possible from government interference.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4350, Freedom of Association: Freedom of Expression, Part 27
The right to associate freely with other citizens is part of living in a free society.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4349, Freedom of Assembly Does Have Limits: Freedom of Expression, Part 27
The Supreme Court has emphasized the importance of the right to assemble in a free society, but it has approved certain restrictions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4348, The Importance of Freedom of Assembly and the Right to Petition: Freedom of Expression, Part 26
Freedom of assembly was effectively used by the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s to bring about societal change. The right to petition government for a redress of grievances is widely used today at the local, state, and national levels.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4347, How American Women Have Used the Right to Petition: Freedom of Expression, Part 25
Throughout the nation's history, American women have used their right to petition government for a redress of grievances to secure their rights and effect societal change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4346, Silencing Critics: Freedom of Expression, Part 24
The use of the right to petition has been an important way for people who were denied the right to vote to communicate with public officials, but the U.S. government has sometimes tried to silence its critics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4345, Abolitionists and the Gag Rule: Freedom of Expression, Part 23
The right to petition government for a redress of grievances, guaranteed by the First Amendment, was an important tool used by Americans to communicate their opinions to public officials. Nevertheless, public officials have at times sought to limit the right to petition. One infamous example is the gag rule in the House of Representatives, which prohibited debate on certain topics, including slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4344, The Right to Petition in the Colonies: Freedom of Expression, Part 22
The right to petition played an important role in politics in the American colonies.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4343, Origins of the Rights to Assemble and Petition: Freedom of Expression, Part 21
The rights of assembly and petition were part of English common law for hundreds of years and were seen by Americans as fundamental to a constitutional democracy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4342, The Rights to Petition and Associate: Freedom of Expression, Part 20
Freedom of expression is protected by the First and Fourteenth Amendments and applies to the states as well as the national government. The right to associate, which is part of freedom of expression, arose out of cases in the 1950s and 1960s challenging the efforts of some states to limit the activities of civil rights groups, such as the NAACP.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4341, The Right to Peaceably Assemble: Freedom of Expression, Part 19
The Supreme Court held in the 1937 case of De Jonge v. Oregon that the right of peaceable assembly "cannot be denied without violating those fundamental principles of liberty and justice which lie at the base of all civil and political institutions."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4340, Rights to Assemble, Petition, and Associate: Freedom of Expression, Part 18
The First Amendment protects people's right to form their own opinions, including those about politics and religion. It also protects the right to communicate those opinions to others.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4339, Brandenburg v. Ohio: Freedom of Expression, Part 17
In the 1969 case of Brandenburg v. Ohio the Supreme Court adopted an approach to free speech and press that was much more tolerant of provocative, inflammatory speech than past approaches.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4338, Limitations on the Power to Restrict Speech: Freedom of Expression, Part 16
The federal government can restrict free speech and press, but there are several limitations to this power.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4337, How Supreme Court Decisions Regulate Free Speech: Freedom of Expression, Part 15
The Supreme Court always has permitted some regulation of speech and the press. The Court's approach to analyzing restrictions on speech and press has been described as both "dynamic" and "unpredictable."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4336, Government Regulation of Free Speech: Freedom of Expression, Part 14
The American government regulates free speech in three ways: through regulations, prohibitions, and punishments.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4335, Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions: Freedom of Expression, Part 13
Some laws limiting freedom of expression do not violate the First Amendment. These laws are created to protect other important values and interests

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4334, Some Exceptions to Free Speech: Freedom of Expression, Part 12
Governments at all levels in the United States make laws that limit freedom of expression to protect other important values and interests.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4333, Can Freedom of Speech Be Limited?: Freedom of Expression, Part 11
Despite the statement in the First Amendment that "Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech," most people argue in favor of limiting freedom of expression in certain situations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4332, Government Suppression of Unpopular Ideas: Freedom of Expression, Part 10
There has been pressure at many times throughout history to suppress unpopular ideas. Restrictions generally have been imposed during times of war or when the government has felt threatened.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4331, Jury Nullification in the John Peter Zenger Case: Freedom of Expression, Part 9
The John Peter Zenger case provided an early example of jury nullification, which means that a jury reaches a verdict of not guilty, despite overwhelming proof that the defendant committed a particular act, because the jury believes that the law making the act a crime is immoral or wrong.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4330, John Peter Zenger: Freedom of Expression, Part 8
Many Americans believe that the John Peter Zenger case not only established an important right of freedom of the press but also proved the importance of the jury as a check on arbitrary government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4329, "Our Liberty Depends on Freedom of the Press": Freedom of Expression, Part 7
By 1800, freedom of speech and press were beginning to be considered an essential part of free government. As Thomas Jefferson put it, "Our liberty depends on freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4328, The English Common Law of Seditious Libel: Freedom of Expression, Part 6
The English common law of seditious libel made it a crime to publish anything that might injure the reputation of the government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4327, Free Expression and Seditious Libel: Freedom of Expression, Part 5
Modern Americans' expectations about free expression differ markedly from those of Americans and the English during the colonial period. The law of seditious libel in England dates to 1606 and the case of "De Libellis Famosis."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4326, English Origins of American Ideas about Freedom of Expression: Freedom of Expression, Part 4
Many ideas about the importance of freedom of speech and of the press were brought to America from England.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4325, A Necessary Part of Representative Government: Freedom of Expression, Part 3
If the people are to instruct government properly, then they must have access to information, ideas, and various points of view.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4324, 2 Big Reasons for Free Expression: Freedom of Expression, Part 2
Two big arguments in favor of freedom of expression are (1) it promotes individual growth and human dignity and (2) freedom of expression is important for the advancement of knowledge.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4323, 5 Arguments for Free Expression: Freedom of Expression, Part 1
Today we kick off a miniseries on freedom of expression, part of our continuing examination of the rights protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. On today's podcast, we present five arguments in favor of freedom of expression.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4322, The Supreme Court's Test for Free Exercise Cases: Freedom of Religion, Part 8
Here is the current test the justices use to judge laws limiting free exercise of religion: 1. The law must be neutral and apply to everyone; 2. If the law is not neutral and does not apply to everyone, the government must have a compelling interest for enacting it. Furthermore, the government must adopt the least restrictive means for furthering that compelling interest.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4321, When Bedrock Principles Collide: Freedom of Religion, Part 7
According to former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, there are three "bedrock principles" from which to begin the analysis of establishment clause cases. Learn what these are on today's 60-Second Civics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4320, How the Supreme Court Ruled in Two Free Exercise Cases: Freedom of Religion, Part 6
Two Supreme Court cases provide an illustration of how the Court has ruled on tests of the First Amendment's free exercise of religion clause.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4319, How the Supreme Court Decides Whether a Law Violates the Free Exercise Clause: Freedom of Religion, Part 5
When deciding cases involving the free exercise of religion, the Supreme Court normally asks whether the law is neutral and applies to everyone. If it is not, the justices ask whether the government has a compelling interest for enacting the law and whether the government adopted the least restrictive means for furthering that compelling interest.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4318, How Court Decisions Limit Free Exercise of Religion: Freedom of Religion, Part 4
The Supreme Court will sometimes limit the free exercise of religion, particularly when the health of a minor is involved. It is less likely to interfere with the right of mentally competent adults to make their own decisions based on their religious beliefs.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4317, Free Exercise of Religion: Freedom of Religion, Part 3
The free exercise clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution protects the right to believe in any religion or none at all. It also protects the right to practice one's religion, but this right does have limits.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4316, Interpretation of the Establishment Clause: Freedom of Religion, Part 2
There are three common methods of interpreting the establishment clause of the First Amendment: (1) broad interpretation, (2) narrow interpretation, and (3) literal interpretation. Most American agree that church and state should be separate, but they are no closer today to defining the proper scope of separation of church and state than they were in 1791.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4315, The Establishment Clause: Freedom of Religion, Part 1
Today we launch a new series on freedom of religion as protected by the First Amendment by examining the very first part of the amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4314, A Rough Start for the Bill of Rights: Rights, Part 13
The Bill of Rights was not initially received with enthusiasm. It caused bitter disagreements among both Federalists and Anti-Federalists. It had little effect on the lives of most Americans, whose day-to-day existence was impacted more by their state government rather than the national government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4313, How the Constitution Protects Rights: Rights, Part 12
In addition to those rights protected in the first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, the body of the U.S. Constitution and subsequent amendments also protect many rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4312, Rights and the Third Amendment: Rights, Part 11
The Third Amendment was written in response to the Quartering Act of 1765, which was a British law authorizing colonial governors to requisition certain buildings, including parts of people's homes, for housing British troops.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4311, Rights and the Second Amendment: Rights, Part 10
Today we explain how the Second Amendment has been interpreted by the courts. The Second Amendment is a good example of both positive and negative rights in the Bill of Rights. Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, whereas negative rights restrict government action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4310, Positive vs. Negative Rights: Rights, Part 9
Positive rights require government to act in specified ways, but negative rights restrict government action.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4309, Economic and Political Rights
Economic rights are associated with ownership. Examples include choosing the work one wants to do, acquiring and disposing of property, entering into contracts. Political rights address political participation, such as voting and supporting particular candidates for office.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4308, Personal Rights: Rights, Part 7
The idea that humans are autonomous, self-governing individuals with fundamental rights is central to natural rights philosophy.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4307, What Are Rights?: Rights, Part 6
Rights may be held by individuals, classes or categories of individuals, or institutions. The emphasis on the rights of individuals is reflected in natural rights philosophy, exemplified in the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4306, All States Have Bills of Rights: Rights, Part 5
Each state adopted a constitution after the Declaration of Independence was issued. Today, the constitutions of all fifty states, as well as the U.S. Constitution, contain bills or declarations of rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4305, Limits on Government in the Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 4
The Virginia Declaration of Rights described how representative government should be organized, limited the power of government, and informed the creation of our Bill of Rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4304, The Virginia Declaration of Rights: Rights, Part 3
Virginia was the first state to include a bill of rights in its constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4303, Why Have a Bill of Rights?: Rights, Part 2
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 was passed by Parliament, which means that Parliament can change it at any time. The American Bill of Rights, in contrast, is part of the U.S. Constitution, which is much more difficult to change, as are states' bills of rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4302, The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights
The struggle between the rights of the people and the power of government to deny those rights is one of the great themes of human history. This episode of 60-Second Civics explores two documents that limited the power of government in English history: the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights. These documents significantly influenced American conceptions of the limitations on the power of government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4301, Dr. Carla Hayden's Advice to Young Women Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 31
Today, we close our Women's History Month Series with our final interview with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress. Dr. Hayden shares her mother's advice on the benefits of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4300, Dr. Carla Hayden on Becoming the Librarian of Congress: Women's History Month, Part 30
Dr. Carla Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress. On today's podcast, Dr. Hayden explains why she considers herself to be an "accidental librarian" and what being a librarian means to her.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4299, Dr. Carla Hayden on Resources from the Library of Congress: Women's History Month, Part 29
On today's episode, we had the honor of speaking with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress, who explains the resources available at the Library of Congress. Dr. Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4298, Judge Mae D'Agostino's Advice to Young People Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 28
Today on 60-Second Civics, Judge Mae D'Agostino provides her advice to young people considering a career in public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4297, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Barriers to Women Entering the Legal Profession: Women's History Month, Part 27
On today's podcast, Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York, speaks about her belief that "more opportunities will be opening up for women in the years and months ahead" in the federal judiciary and what steps women entering the legal profession can take to better assure success in their legal career.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4296, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Serving as a U.S. District Court Judge: Women's History Month, Part 26
On today's podcast, we welcome a very special guest: Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York. Judge D'Agostino speaks about how she came to serve in her position, and what it is like to be the first woman sitting as a judge in many of the courthouses she has presided over.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4295, The Equal Rights Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 25
The Equal Rights Amendment was first proposed in 1923. Its ratification is still in limbo, with several states having rescinded their original ratification. It says, "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4294, The Nineteenth Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 24
After decades of struggle, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, recognizing the right of women to vote throughout the country, but not all women would be able to realize this right.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4293, The Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913: Women's History Month, Part 23
One day before the presidential inauguration of Woodrow Wilson, roughly 8,000 women's rights activists marched from the U.S. Capitol to the Treasury Department to demand the right to vote. Although marred by violence and racism, the aims of the marchers would be realized 7 years later with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4292, Mary Church Terrell: Women's History Month, Part 22
Mary Church Terrell was an African American educator, women's rights campaigner, and civil rights activist.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4291, Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Women's History Month, Part 21
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4290, Ida Tarbell: Women's History Month, Part 20
Ida Tarbell was a pioneering investigative journalist of the Progressive Era. Her 19-part series on Standard Oil Company would ultimately lead to the breakup of the company.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4289, Ida B. Wells: Women's History Month, Part 19
Ida B. Wells refused to march at the back of a women's suffrage parade. She refused to leave a first-class train car and sit in the section reserved for African Americans. And most importantly she refused to be silenced and courageously reported on lynchings of African Americans, risking her life and facing down numerous threats.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4288, Susan B. Anthony: Women's History Month, Part 18
After her trial for having voted in an 1872 election, Susan B. Anthony explained to the judge the implications of her conviction: "My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, are all alike ignored. Robbed of the fundamental privilege of citizenship, I am degraded from the status of a citizen to that of a subject." Today, women in Rochester, New York, cover her grave with "I Voted" stickers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4287, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women's History Month, Part 17
Elizabeth Cady Stanton is remembered for her persuasive oratorical skills, the power of her writing, her tireless advocacy of the right to vote for women and reform of laws that kept men and women on an unequal footing.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4286, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's History Month, Part 16
In 1848, about 300 activists met in Seneca Falls, New York, for the first convention in the United States devoted to women's rights. They discussed Elizabeth Cady Stanton's proposed Declaration of Sentiments, which mirrored the language of the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4285, The Forten Sisters: Women's History Month, Part 15
Margaretta, Harriet, and Sarah Forten were three powerful African American campaigners for the abolition and women's rights movements. Harriet and Sarah married members of another prominent abolitionist family, the Purvises. Harriet and her husband Robert were involved in the Underground Railroad, and their home served as a refuge for people who had escaped slavery and as a meeting place for abolitionists.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4284, Lucretia Mott: Women's History Month, Part 14
Lucretia Mott was one of the most well-known, active, and influential women's rights and anti-slavery activists in nineteenth-century America. She was a persuasive speaker at a time when public speaking by women was frowned upon. Not allowed to actively participate in the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 because of their gender, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton resolved to organize the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the nation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4283, Sarah and Angelina Grimke: Women's History Month, Part 13
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were among the first women to speak out in public in opposition to slavery. They were condemned for speaking out in public to "promiscuous" audiences; that is, audiences composed of both men and women. This prompted them to speak out more forcefully for equal rights for women. They lived long enough to see slavery abolished and the right of African American men to vote recognized, but universal women's suffrage would not be achieved until 1920, although Jim Crow laws would make it difficult or impossible for African Americans vote until the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4282, Beginning of the Women's Movement: Women's History Month, Part 12
The movement for equal rights for women in the United States had its beginnings in the movement to abolish slavery. In both movements, women would encounter vociferous and sometimes violent opposition.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4281, Fanny Wright: Women's History Month, Part 11
Fanny Wright was radical by the standards of her time. She was a writer and social activist who campaigned for equal rights for women, free and secular public education for both boys and girls, and the abolition of slavery, among other social and political issues. Wright was a fierce advocate of equality. She was friends with Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette, conversing with them about political philosophy, and she admired the American experiment with self-government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4280, Mercy Otis Warren: Women's History Month, Part 10
Mercy Otis Warren was a playwright, poet, historian, and Anti-Federalist political commentator during the American Revolution. She was a talented writer, admired for her skill and her dedication to the principles of natural rights behind the Revolution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4279, Margaret Todd Whetten: Women's History Month, Part 9
Margaret Todd Whetten and her daughters provided food, clothing, and support to American prisoners in New York City, despite being called by one British jailer the "damndest rebels in New York." They provided a safe refuge for American spies in their home, saving them from capture and certain hanging. As as result, her house became known as the "rebel headquarters."

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4278, Women During the Revolutionary War: Women's History Month, Part 8
Women served the American cause in many ways during the Revolutionary War, even as combatants.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4277, The Daughters of Liberty: Women's History Month, Part 7
At the start of the American Revolution, women patriots organized into a group known as the Daughters of Liberty. Like their male counterparts, the Sons of Liberty, women took action, such as boycotts, to protest British policies. For example, they replace imported British tea with "liberty tea," made from leaves, herbs, fruits, and flowers, like goldenrod. Without women's adherence to the boycotts, they would not have been effective.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4276, Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 6
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4275, Nanye'hi: Women's History Month, Part 5
Despite being known as the "War Woman of Chota," Nanye'hi, also known as Nancy Ward, was a Cherokee woman who would work for much of her life to ensure peace between the Cherokees and the Americans, while attempting to prevent the further seizure of Cherokee land.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4274, Elizabeth Freeman: Women's History Month, Part 4
Elizabeth Freeman, also known as Mum Bett, escaped slavery in a way that was unusual: she took her case to court. She approached lawyer Theodore Sedgwick with this question: "I heard that paper read yesterday that says 'all men are born equal,' and that every man has a right to freedom ... won't the law give me my freedom?" Appealing to her natural rights and her rights under the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, she sued for her freedom and won.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4273, Ona Judge: Women's History Month, Part 3
Ona Judge escaped George and Martha Washington's household, where she was an enslaved housemaid, and made her way to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she eluded George Washington's determined attempts to capture her. She made a new life for herself in New Hampshire, marrying and having three children. Her side of her remarkable story survives because she gave interviews to at least two abolitionist newspapers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4272, Coverture and the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 2
A married woman living during the American colonial era would have lived under the legal doctrine called "coverture," where her legal identity was subsumed under that of her husband. William Blackstone wrote, "By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she performs every thing." This was governed by colonial law before independence and state law after independence. It would not change substantially after the Revolution in most states, but divorce and child custody laws would change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4271, The Struggle for Equality: Women's History Month, Part 1
It's Women's History Month! All this month, 60-Second Civics will explain the struggle for equal rights for women and how our Constitution and laws evolved to make our nation a more representative democracy. In this episode, we briefly trace the struggle of women for equal voting rights in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4270, Mass Incarceration: Black History Month, Part 28
According to today's guest, Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law, mass incarceration has "decimated the lives of black and brown people and communities." Learn more about the problem of mass incarceration and how it began on today's extra-long bonus episode of the 60-Second Civics podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4269, Brown v. Board of Education: Black History Month, Part 27
On today's extra-long episode, special guest Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law, explains the historical context of the two Brown v. Board of Education decisions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4268, Thurgood Marshall: Black History Month, Part 26
Thurgood Marshall was the first African American justice appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Learn about his remarkable life as told by Hernandez Stroud, counsel for the Justice Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4267, Highlander Folk School: Black History Month, Part 25
The Highlander Folk School in Tennessee trained many civil rights activists in the 1950s. It established the Citizenship Training Program, also known as Citizenship Schools, which educated hundreds of African Americans in the South about their voting rights and how to take political action in the 1950s and 1960s.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4266, The Civil Rights Movement: Black History Month, Part 24
The civil rights movement, which was led by African Americans, involved men and women of many backgrounds and ethnicities who took to the streets to end segregation and to press for civil, political, and economic rights for African Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4265, Rosa Parks: Black History Month, Part 23
Rosa Parks is best known for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, but she fought against injustice her entire life.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4264, Segregation: Black History Month, Part 22
Segregation was meant to ensure not only the separation of African Americans from whites, but also a system of white supremacy. This was given legal cover by the 1896 decision of Plessy v. Ferguson. Persistent racial violence against African Americans enforced the social norms of white supremacy and resulted in the deaths of thousands.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4263, The Failure of Reconstruction and the Rise of Jim Crow: Black History Month, Part 21
The victory of the Union over the Confederacy and the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments did not mean an end to racism in the United States. Federal troops that were meant to ensure the equal enforcement of the laws were sent back to their barracks in 1877. This ended Reconstruction and began the era known as Jim Crow, where Southern states passed laws to subjugate African Americans. Jim Crow would last until the 1960s.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4262, The Civil War Amendments: Black History Month, Part 20
The Civil War Amendments were passed in response to attempts by former Confederate states to limit the rights of African Americans. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment recognized African Americans as citizens and forbade states from denying due process or equal protection of the laws and from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens. The Fifteenth Amendment protected the rights of African American men to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4261, The Thirteenth Amendment and the Black Codes: Black History Month, Part 19
The Thirteenth Amendment finally abolished slavery throughout the entire United States. But African Americans' struggle for equality faced daunting obstacles, such as the vicious and discriminatory Black Codes, which were laws passed to ensure the continued subjugation of formerly enslaved people.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4260, Emancipation Proclamation and Service in the Civil War: Black History Month, Part 18
Despite the fact that African Americans had served in the military since the Revolutionary War, they were not allowed to join the military at the start of the Civil War, but laws passed in 1862 changed this discriminatory policy. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free all the enslaved people in the country. This would not be accomplished until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4259, Robert Smalls, from Captivity to Congress: Black History Month, Part 17
Robert Smalls escaped slavery in 1862 along with his family by sailing a Confederate ship out of Charleston while disguised as the captain, right under the noses of the Confederates. Afterward, he would pilot the same ship for the Union. But that wasn't all. He founded a school and a newspaper and served in the South Carolina state assembly and senate and in the U.S. House of Representatives. Despite persistent racism and threats against his life, he lived a long life of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4258, Frederick Douglass: Black History Month, Part 16
Frederick Douglass was a civil rights crusader. Although born into slavery, he escaped, learned to read and write, and became one of the era's most renowned orators. During his life, he wrote three autobiographies, traveled extensively denouncing the evils of slavery, and campaigned for equal rights for women.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4257, Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln Meet: Black History Month, Part 15
Anti-slavery activist Frederick Douglass and President Abraham Lincoln did not agree on some of the most important issues facing the country before and during the Civil War. Douglass felt that Lincoln did too much to mollify the South and not enough to support the emancipation of enslaved African Americans and the civil rights of people of color. But they would gradually become friends, developing a relationship based on mutual respect.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4256, Sojourner Truth: Black History Month, Part 14
Sojourner Truth was a determined woman. She fled slavery, successfully sued to have her son returned to her in New York after he had been illegally sold to a slaveholder, and made a new life for herself. Truth was a prolific social activist, producing an autobiography, speaking out against slavery, and advocating for the right of women to vote. Two hundred years after her death, a robotic exploration vehicle called Sojourner, named after her, would land on Mars.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4255, The Underground Railroad: Black History Month, Part 13
The Underground Railroad was a system of escape routes, safehouses, and committed anti-slavery activists who helped enslaved people escape to freedom in Canada. Thousands fled to freedom thanks to this multiracial movement led by free African Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4254, Harriet Tubman: Black History Month, Part 12
Harriet Tubman's story is truly inspiring. Born a slave, she escaped to freedom, but later led dozens others to their freedom through the human network known as the Underground Railroad. When the Civil War began, she served as a spy, a nurse, and a guide. But that wasn't all. After the war, she advocated for the right of women to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4253, Abolitionism: Black History Month, Part 11
The struggle to abolish slavery began during the colonial period, but gathered steam in the early 1800s, becoming more militant in the years before the Civil War. This multiracial movement sought the emancipation of enslaved African Americans. Women played a major role, which sowed the seeds of the women's suffrage movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4252, Fugitive Slave Clause: Black History Month, Part 10
The fugitive slave clause was another compromise the Framers of the Constitution made to ensure that the Southern states would ratif the Constitution. This clause required that enslaved people who escaped be returned to the person who claimed them. This applied even to states where slavery would be outlawed, which would later stoke the outrage of abolitionists and raise tension between the North and the South.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4251, Three-Fifths Compromise: Black History Month, Part 9
The Three-Fifths Compromise counted enslaved people for purposes of representation, not to protect the interests of the enslaved people, but to advance the interests of the slaveholders. Here's how it happened: the Framers of the Constitution agreed that there should be proportional representation in the House of Representatives, but disagreed on whether to count enslaved people for purposes of representation. Southern states held many enslaved people in bondage, but Northern states held few. The two sides came to a compromise: they would count three out of every five enslaved people, hence the term "Three-Fifths Compromise." Sadly, this would remain in the Constitution until the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4250, The Constitution and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 8
Many of the Framers of the Constitution were ashamed of slavery, and carefully avoided using the words "slave" or "slavery" in the document. Nevertheless, the Framers protected slavery in the Constitution in order to accommodate the Southern states, which threatened to refuse to join the Union.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4249, African Americans in the American Revolution: Black History Month, Part 7
Enslaved African Americans faced difficult choices at the start of the Revolutionary War. The British royal governor of Virginia promised them freedom, and many joined the Loyalist cause. Up to 100,000 others fled across British lines. And yet about 5,000 served as soldiers in the Continental Army, serving valiantly. We'll learn some of their stories on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4248, Phillis Wheatley Peters: Black History Month, Part 6
Phillis Wheatley Peters was the first African American to publish a volume of poetry. She was born around 1753 and taken to the American colonies as a slave, but learned how to read and write, publishing her first poem at the age of thirteen. Her fame became international when her poems were published in London. She is remembered not only for her poetry, but also for inspiring abolitionists in America and Europe.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4247, The Declaration of Independence and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 5
The Declaration of Independence asserted that "all Men are created equal" and yet enslaved African Americans had been systematically deprived of their rights since at least 1619. Today we learn about the passages condemning slavery that were deleted from the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4246, The Economics of Slavery: Black History Month, Part 4
The South became increasingly dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans, especially after the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. Cotton was a main cash crop. This dependence on forced labor led to the refusal of the South to abolish slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4245, Languages and Cultures of Enslaved Africans in America: Black History Month, Part 3
When enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to America, their names were changed by slaveholders and they were often forbidden to speak their native languages. Nevertheless, these rich cultures were never entirely suppressed, and their influence can be seen in the United States today.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4244, Introduction of Slavery to America: Black History Month, Part 2
More than 10 million enslaved Africans would be forcibly transported to the New Word, and at least 250,000 would be taken to the United States. Slavery would not be confined to the South. Slavery was eventually practiced in every American colony.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4243, All Men Are Created Equal: Black History Month, Part 1
Despite the assurance of the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal," the Declaration did not recognize the freedom of enslaved people. And although the Constitution did not mention the word "slavery," it contained provisions that ensured its survival. Nevertheless, the story of the more than 400 years since slavery was first introduced into the thirteen colonies is one of expanding rights and greater equality for all Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4242, Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions on Free Assembly
The First Amendment protects freedom of assembly, but the Supreme Court has held that time, place, and manner restrictions are permissible under certain circumstances. Learn more on today's 60-Second Civics.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4241, The Right to Peaceably Assemble
The right to peaceably assemble is protected by the First Amendment, but it does have limits.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4240, What Will Donald Trump's Second Senate Impeachment Trial Look Like?
Former president Donald Trump's second impeachment trial is scheduled to begin on February 9. It will look a bit different than the last impeachment trial, but the constitutional limitations remain the same.

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